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专四必备语法:分词

宣布工夫:2015-11-20内容泉源:VOA英语学习网

四、分词

分词起描述词和副词的作用,在句中做定语或状语。在观点上应清晰:

● 如今分词表现自动,表现举措在停止。

● 过来分词表现主动,表现举措完毕了的形态或后果。

1.分词做定语,弄清如今分词与过来分词的区别

分词短语做定语相称于省略了的定语从句,考生应掌握:

(1)如今分词与被修遁词之间具有自动意义。如:

It’s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-increasing world.

(相称于the changes which take place...)

There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.

(相称于which gave...)

How many of us attending, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion?

(相称于How many of us who will attend...)

(2)过来分词与被修遁词之间具有主动意义。如:

Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port announced half a day before the defenders actually surrendered.

(相称于…recapture of the port which had been announced…)

Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone added to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out. (相称于…each new phone which is added to…)

The author gave a detailed description based on his personal observation of nature.

(相称于…description which was based on…)

(3)下列不及物动词也以过来分词方式做定语或表语,但不具有主动意义:

deceased, departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, grown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-travelled, newly arrived, recently come。如:

an escaped prisoner一个逃犯 a retired worker一位退休工人

a faded curtain一个褪了色的窗帘 a newly arrived student一个新来的先生

2.分词做状语,留意区分分词的普通式与完成式

(1)表现工夫,多置于句首,留意假如分词表现的举措的工夫先于谓语动词,要用完成式。如:

Having completed one task, we started on another one. (complete先于start之前发作)

(2)表现缘由,置于句首句尾均可,依据状况偶然要用完成式,偶然用普通式。如:

He wasn’t asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, being considered insufficiently popular with all members.

There seemed little hope that the explorer, having been deserted in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.

(3)表现随同、方法,置于句尾,用分词的普通式。如:

Helen borrowed my dictionary the other day saying that she would return it soon.

Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely lost to the outside world.

(4)表现后果,置于句尾,用分词的普通式。如:The city found itself in a crisis situation last summer when the air conditioning on dozens of the new buses broke down, them unusable.

(5)表现增补阐明(同位),置于句尾,用分词的普通式。如:The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each making one major point in contrast with the other.

Ford tried dividing the labor, each worker assigned a separate task.

3.分词的独立主格构造

分词的逻辑主语普通为句子的主语,不然分词短语要有本人的逻辑主语,称为分词独立主格构造。分词独立主格构造只是句子的一个局部。如:

All flights having been canceled because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train.

Darkness setting in, the young couple lingered on merrymaking.

 

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