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(1)must have +过来分词,表现对已发作状况的一定揣测,译为“(昨天)肯定……”。如:

My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

(2)can’t/couldn’t have +过来分词,表现对已发作状况的否认揣测,译为“(昨天)肯定没……”。 如:

Mary couldn’t have received my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

(3)may/might have +过来分词,表现对已发作的事变做不愿定、能够性很小的揣测,或现实上基本没发作,译为“大概……”。如:At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.


(1)needn’t have+过来分词,表现做了不用做的事,译为“实在没须要……”。如:

As it turned out to be a small house party, we needn’t have dressed up so formally.

(2)should /should not have +过来分词,表现应该做某事但实践上未做,或本不该该做但实践上做了, 译为“本(不)应该……”。如:I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.

(3)ought to have+过来分词,表现举措按理该发作了,但实践上未发作,译为“该……”,与should的完成式寄义相似。如:

The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke.

(4)could have+过来分词,表现过来原本可以做但却未做,译为“完全可以……”。如:

What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.

(5)may/might have + 过来分词,表现过来可以做但实践未做,译为“(那样)大概会……”。如:

It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.


(1)may/might (just) as well“无妨,最好”,与had better相近。如:

Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train.

(2)cannot/can’t…too… “越……越好,怎样也不外分”。留意这个句型的变体cannot…over…。如:

You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.

The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be overemphasized.

(3)usedn’t或didn’t use to为used to (do)的否认式。

(4)should 除了“应该”一层意思外,纲要还规则要掌握其“居然”的意思。如:

I didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that.


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